Author Topic: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans  (Read 28694 times)

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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #25 on: June 04, 2016, 10:41:04 »
https://legionmagazine.com/en/2015/07/studying-the-benefits-of-medical-marijuana/

Studying the benefits of medical marijuana
July 1, 2015 by Sharon Adams -





A clinical trial examining medical marijuana for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder is underway in British Columbia, where marijuana, produced legally or otherwise, is estimated to contribute as much to the provincial economy as agriculture and forestry.

Using vaporizers, 40 volunteers with PTSD, two-thirds of them military or police veterans, will try various strains of marijuana (or a placebo) and report the effect on such symptoms as flashbacks, sleep problems, anger and anxiety.

The research will be conducted by University of British Columbia psychology and medical researchers at its Okanagan campus.

Tilray, one of 16 authorized Health Canada marijuana producers, has indicated it will cover the $350,000 in costs—and supply the various strains of marijuana. The company grows, processes, packages and ships medical marijuana from its 60,000-square-foot facility near Nanaimo, B.C.

The research will shed a little light on the often heated debate around medical use of marijuana.  A Supreme Court ruling in 2000 resulted in Health Canada approving the use of medical marijuana in 2001, although it has continued its campaign against its use as a recreational drug. Aside from problems with addiction, lung health and changes to the brain, particularly for teens, pot use remains illegal.

    One Halifax veteran said that marijuana slows down his mental reactions, so if he hears a loud noise, he doesn’t automatically dive for cover.

Veterans Affairs Canada has covered veterans’ prescription costs since 2008, although debate about whether to continue, cap or cancel the program has increased as the number of veterans claiming reimbursement has grown. The cost of those prescriptions has increased to $4.3 million from $417,000 in 2013-14, as the number of veterans with prescriptions quadrupled to about 600, the Canadian Press discovered under access-to-information requests.

Many veterans plagued by pain or operational stress injuries such as PTSD, depression and anxiety have found that marijuana works better for them than pharmaceutical prescription drugs. One Halifax veteran said in a recent interview with Legion Magazine that marijuana slows down his mental reactions, so if he hears a loud noise, he doesn’t automatically dive for cover, or if cut off in traffic, he doesn’t fly instantly into a road rage.

But he does have to bear disapproval in the community, including those at VAC who handle his reimbursement claims. “I’m not an addict, and I won’t keep using it forever. But right now I need it.”

Moral objections to the use of a doctor-prescribed substance aside, critics point to the growing pile of studies documenting the health risks of marijuana, and the scarcity of research on its benefits. This is hardly surprising given that growing, selling and possessing the drug for recreational use have been criminal offences for a very long time, although support seems to be growing for decriminalization of possession for personal use.

THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active ingredient in marijuana, hashish and hash oil, and its potency has quadrupled over the decades since the flower-power generation grew up. Within minutes of passing through the lungs, THC relaxes and enlarges airways, expands blood vessels and lowers blood pressure. In the brain, THC mimics the neurotransmitter anandamide, binding to its receptors and activating cells throughout the brain involved in short-term memory, muscle co-ordination and feelings of well-being. The pleasant effects wear off in a few hours, but the THC continues acting on the body for a day or more, often affecting mood with unpleasant side effects, like nervousness or anxiety, symptoms to which the young are particularly vulnerable.

A study at the New York University Langone Medical Center found brains of people with PTSD have more anandamide receptors in the parts of the brain associated with fear and anxiety, and lower levels of the neurotransmitter. It is thought the brain compensates for lower levels of anandamide by increasing the number of anandamide receptors and that THC activates those receptors, suppressing traumatic memories and reducing PTSD symptoms.

But animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of THC are short-lived, as though prolonged exposure makes the brain less sensitive to THC. More study is needed to determine if it’s the same with humans—and humans whose brain chemistry has been altered by PTSD

And much more study is needed to determine the full range of positive effects of THC on human brains generally, and on brains affected by PTSD, including how much is needed to produce the positive effects, and at what dosage or length of use does marijuana stop delivering the benefits.

Yes, marijuana poses health risks; so does taking aspirin and undergoing chemotherapy. The difference is that research has established safe doses for the pharmaceuticals, so doctors can help patients decide whether the benefit outweighs the risk, and if so, prescribe the proper dosage. Veterans prescribed marijuana deserve no less.

- See more at: https://legionmagazine.com/en/2015/07/studying-the-benefits-of-medical-marijuana/#sthash.d5hisiJs.dpuf
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #26 on: June 04, 2016, 10:48:44 »
http://www.thewhig.com/2016/04/01/medical-marijuana-use-among-veterans-rising


Medical marijuana use among veterans rising

 HANNAH LAWSON

Friday, April 1, 2016 5:26:57 EDT PM





Trevor Hands, the founder of the first medical marijuana centre in Kingston, Medi-Green


The founder of a local medical marijuana centre says the increase of Canadian veterans requesting prescriptions for medical marijuana could be attributed to better knowledge of treatment for soldiers suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.

Trevor Hands, the founder of the first medical marijuana centre in Kingston, Medi-Green, attributes the rise in usage of cannabis among veterans to an ever-increasing knowledge of PTSD, physical trauma and how to treat it.

"They've [veterans have] looked at the past of their forefathers and have seen what, potentially, alcohol and pills have done, and now there's recognition of PTSD and what it is," Hands said.

Earlier this month, Minister of Veterans Affairs Kent Hehr announced an internal review investigating a sharp increase of veterans using medical marijuana to treat psychological and physical trauma. The spike in medical marijuana use prompted Veterans Affairs to complete a review and develop a policy for veterans seeking medical marijuana for treatement.

Between the fiscal years of 2013 and 2015, there was a nearly 12-times increase in veterans claiming reimbursement for cannabis, according to numbers provided by Veterans Affairs. According to Veterans Affairs, it reimbursed veterans $409,000 in fiscal year 2013-2014, but that figure jumped to more than $12.1 million between April and December of 2015.

In the past, some veterans were treated with the mentality of simply taking it like a soldier, Hands said, but now that a greater understanding of PTSD exists, the condition is actually being diagnosed. He said cannabis is an effective and safe way to treat PTSD once it is diagnosed, and if ever veterans want to quit using marijuana, there are no worries of addiction.

Dan Quirion, a former Canadian Forces member, served in the army for 21 years as a signal operator. Quirion said he previously treated the effects of PTSD with pharmaceutical drugs, but had better results with medical marijuana.

"Soldiers are turning to cannabis because it's a better relief and a better fit for them," Quirion said. "It helps them reach a level where -- we don't like to say normal -- but they are functional in their daily lives.

Quirion said he had friends from the army who didn't leave their homes for years, but cannabis has changed everything for them.

"They're able to go out, able to have a rapport with society, and are able to bring back their family. In some cases, they had lost family, wives or husbands," Quirion said.

In April of last year, Medi-Green opened its first centre in Perth, followed by a Kingston location in December. Hands recognized a need that was desperately unfulfilled between Toronto and Ottawa and decided to do something about it.

"I didn't see any services [here]," Hands said. "There are [other centres] coming to town now, but I didn't see any services, and both Toronto and Ottawa are saturated with centres," Hands said.

Hands said Medi-Green tries to offer any service customers might require, from prescriptions to lessons on proper use and even retreats. Cannabis is a versatile plant that can be consumed by smoking or mixing it into tea or baked or added to food, and part of what Medi-Green offers is education on the best method of cannabis ingestion for patients.

"It's a full gamut of things that we offer," Hands said.

While Quirion said he had never touched any sort of illegal drugs in his life before being given a prescription for medical marijuana, he was finally convinced to try cannabis when he found he required additional drugs to combat the effects of the pharmaceuticals he was already being prescribed. He is now in the process of cutting back on the pharmaceutical drugs with the intention of eventually relying entirely on cannabis.

Veterans today have more options for support and treatment than those who fought in wars and conflicts in the 20th century, according to Quirion.

"Back then, many veterans dealt with trauma by bottling it in and drinking," Quirion said. "Now veterans are looking for a long-term solution, not so they can just operate every day within their household, but so they can return to as close to normal as possible," Quirion said.
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #27 on: June 04, 2016, 11:10:48 »
http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/cannabis-cooking-edibles-1.3612835

Pot pancakes? Cooking with cannabis and what could be on Canada's menu

Cannabis food products aren't for sale yet, but entrepreneurs already preparing for legalization of edibles

By Sophia Harris, CBC News Posted: Jun 03, 2016 5:00 AM ET Last Updated: Jun 03, 2016 3:20 PM ET

Chef Cody Lindsay whips pancake batter while an intrigued crowd watches. He adds whole wheat flour and oats to give the mixture a healthy boost.

"It's just small improvements to your diet that will help you feel better," he tells the audience at a recent cooking demonstration in Toronto.

Then comes the final ingredient — one not typically found in pancakes — a few doses of cannabis oil.

"Now, we know that each pancake is going to have a least one millilitre of THC," Lindsay says.

Canada doesn't allow the sale of marijuana food products, even for medical use, but individuals who have a prescription for medical marijuana can cook with cannabis at home. And some businesses hope the day will come when they can tap into the lucrative pot edibles market.



Chef Cody Lindsay teaches medical marijuana users how to make healthy meals using cannabis. (CBC )

Lindsay, a 32-year-old Canadian war veteran, uses medical marijuana to treat anxiety he developed during a rough tour in Afghanistan.

Also a trained chef, he says he wants to help other medical marijuana users, especially fellow veterans, cook with cannabis in nutritional ways.

"To go one step further and incorporate it into their diet within healthy foods, it's just an added bonus," said Lindsay. "You know, cannabis and salad do mix."



Currently, individuals who have prescriptions for medical marijuana are allowed to cook with cannabis themselves but can't purchase edibles. Here, Lindsay shows an audience how to make a smoothie with cannabis oil at a cooking demonstration in Toronto. (CBC)

He would like to sell some of his cannabis creations, perhaps even open a marijuana-themed restaurant. But for now, Lindsay sticks to selling his new cannabis cookbook, which features healthy recipes for everything from salad dressings to smoothies to risotto.

No edible sales — for now

Recently, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that medical marijuana users were not limited to smoking the dried plant and could consume pot.

In response, Health Canada allowed licensed medical marijuana companies to produce and sell cannabis oil for medical use.

Some companies expect that in time, they will be allowed to sell cannabis food items as well.

Already, Victoria city council is exploring a medical marijuana business bylaw that would permit the sale of edible pot products.

The expected legalization of marijuana in Canada next year could also expand the edibles market to recreational users.
In U.S. states like Colorado, where marijuana is legal, the edibles business is booming.

Lindsay says eating cannabis is preferable to inhaling it for non-smokers and those craving a more steady high.

"You can feel it throughout your system, but it's not giving you a heavy head high, where in 45 minutes, you'll feel burned out," he said.

 If the edibles market opens up in Canada, Lindsay plans to keep his business small, but others have big ambitions.

Licensed medical cannabis producer CannTrust in Vaughan, Ont., has already applied for approval to make pot-infused single-serve coffee pods.
Tweed's sweet ambitions

Another licensed medical marijuana producer, Tweed, has its sights set on candy.

"It's certainly an exciting opportunity," said company president Mark Zekulin.



Mark Zekulin, who runs a licensed medical marijuana businesses, would like to starting manufacturing pot-infused chocolates if the sale of edibles becomes legal. (CBC)

Tweed, which manufactures dried cannabis and oils, has set up shop in the vacated Hershey's chocolate factory in Smith Falls, Ont.

The space is perfect for manufacturing a line of pot-infused chocolates, said Zekulin.

"A lot of the equipment is, in fact, still here," he said.

Zekulin suggests Tweed could consider pot-infused drinks as well.

"As you look ahead to a non-medical market, you could see it sitting beside alcohol in the [liquour store]," he said.
Tweed marijuana mix

Zekulin's company, Tweed, currently sells muffin mixes to which customers can add cannabis oil. (CBC)

But for now, Zekulin must settle for selling just the cannabis oil and letting customers do the baking themselves — although his company does sell muffin and cupcake mixes.

There are two varieties: gluten-free vanilla and chocolate, and Tweed also has plans for a granola bar mix.

"We tried to pick easy recipes that call for 100 millilitres of oil. If you make 25 mini cupcakes, you can roughly figure out the dose that you have," explains Zekulin.

Plenty to chew on

Dosing is one of the big concerns with the edibles market. In some U.S. states where pot is legal, there have been reports of increased visits to hospitals because of inexperienced users ingesting too much of the drug — often in the form of tasty treats.

Another concern is that the treats will attract children.

Health Canada told CBC News it currently doesn't allow the sale of medical cannabis in food because edible products, brownies and candy in particular, can appeal to young people.

In Colorado, concerns have led to new rules for edibles, including child-proof packaging and improved labels that list ingredients and dosing information. 

Zekulin believes the controversy surrounding pot-infused products means Health Canada will proceed cautiously.

"They're open to exploring more, but they really need to understand the data, the risks, how it would work," he said.

Getting a head start

Canadian company Nutritional High isn't waiting around for a green light.

It plans to soon start manufacturing cannabis-infused hard candies, gummies and chocolates — in Colorado.

The Toronto-based business is currently building a 11,000-square-foot factory in the state that will churn out the treats with small, controlled doses of pot, says CEO David Posner.

"We only went to the States because it wasn't legal to do it here," he said.

"We wanted to at least get a jump start on what we think is going to be the most profitable and interesting part of the whole industry."

But for now, that part of the industry is relegated to cannabis oil and cookbooks in Canada.

That's fine for chef Lindsay. His main mission is to educate patients how to make their own meals.

At his cooking demo, he's now moved on to a chicken pesto sandwich, topped off with cannabis oil.

"If you're going to be taking cannabis in a non-smokable form, eating it is the next best way to go," he tells his audience.

And in Canada, the best way to do that for now is to cook with it yourself.
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #29 on: June 04, 2016, 12:18:38 »
Nate and His Brother Nick Diaz have proven a clean Vegan life, and use of Cannabis helps them as athletes.

Nate Diaz: You Do Steroids, I’ll Smoke Marijuana & We Can Fight

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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #32 on: June 04, 2016, 14:07:19 »
Excellent article for everyone, especially female Vets.

Know Your ABCs

What is the difference between cannabinoids and strains?
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #33 on: June 04, 2016, 14:42:51 »
The Wellness Soldier

The Wellness Soldier’s Call to Action.

Call To Action


Our call to action is for you to eat and drink the cleanest, most nutritious way that you possibly can.  You NEED to be mindful about what you feed your body. 

Now a days pre-prepared foods and drinks are loaded with massive amounts of sugar and other harmful ingredients which hinder your body from maintaining or repairing it self. 

Eating/Juicing healthy foods are known to

    reduce pain,
    give you more energy,
    increase concentration,
    help you sleep better,
    improve clarity, and
    help manage stress. 

The Wellness Soldiers call to action of eating/drinking healthy gives your body a chance to help itself from the inside out.  All while reducing the amount of medications that most veterans are on for military related injuries. 

Our call to action wants you to know the basic fundamentals in life are breathing, drinking, and eating.  When you eat, eat fresh and healthy foods.  The healthy foods give you the fuel you need to live vibrant, resilient, and healthy lifestyles. 

I am a veteran, chef, and marijuana advocate and my team of health and fitness professionals want to help you, my fellow veterans get healthy lifestyles.

Please join The Wellness Soldier’s call to action and follow our blog and social media sites.  We bring you information, products, and services in;

    Veterans Programs,
    Healthy Eating and Drinking,
    Fitness, Meditation,
    Meditation
    Medical Marijuana.

 The Wellness Soldier
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #35 on: June 05, 2016, 00:21:23 »
A phenomenal Resource to pick your strain, basd on what hurts you.

CANNABISCOPE
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #36 on: June 05, 2016, 16:11:45 »
Chris Chapman was my first Battle buddy, and he was the Section 2IC back in 1989.

We remained friends for years, and eventually Chappy left the 48th Highlanders and became a member of 2 PPCLI.

Unfortunately, Chris eventually died from Lung Cancer.  This is a documentary of him and his wife Lori, about how they used Medical Cannabis Butter to alleviate the pain from Chemo.



RIP Chappy, I miss you.

http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/short-film-showcase/how-weed-butter-helped-this-couple-through-chemo

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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #37 on: June 06, 2016, 15:01:57 »

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/among-veterans-opioid-prescription-requests-down-in-step-with-rise-in-medical-pot/article30285591/

Among veterans, opioid prescription requests down in step with rise in medical pot



Mike Hager

VANCOUVER — The Globe and Mail

Published Monday, Jun. 06, 2016 1:53PM EDT

Last updated Monday, Jun. 06, 2016 2:09PM EDT


Fewer Canadian veterans have sought prescription opioids and tranquillizers in recent years, while at the same time prescriptions for medical marijuana have skyrocketed.

It is not clear whether the two are related, but the trend echoes what researchers have found in U.S. states with medical-cannabis laws.

New data provided to The Globe and Mail by Veterans Affairs Canada show that over the past four years, the number of veterans prescribed benzodiazepines – with brands such as Xanax, Ativan and Valium – had decreased nearly 30 per cent. Opioid prescriptions also shrank almost 17 per cent during that same period.

In a report last month, the Auditor-General warned Veterans Affairs to rein in spending on its coverage of medical marijuana. Government reimbursements for veterans’ pot prescriptions had ballooned from fewer than a hundred patients costing $284,000 four years ago to more than 1,700 former soldiers charging the department $20-million last fiscal year.

This set of statistics is too small and unrefined to prove any concrete links between the use of the three drugs. But American research showing significant declines in opioid overdoses where medical marijuana has been legalized suggests that people may be substituting these oft-abused medicines with cannabis, according to Thomas Kerr, a researcher with the B.C. Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS.

“This isn’t surprising and we’re seeing the same effect all over the place measured in different ways,” Dr. Kerr said. (Earlier this year, Dr. Kerr and his colleagues at the centre urged the Canadian medical establishment to embrace giving medical marijuana to pain patients instead of frequently abused opioids.)

The groups organizing hundreds of veterans in Atlantic Canada to take advantage of the country’s most robust medical-marijuana coverage have long argued that the drug was replacing other – more harmful – pharmaceuticals such as opioids (for pain relief) and benzodiazepines (for anxiety and insomnia).

Benedikt Fischer, senior scientist at Toronto’s Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, said pain and sleep issues are the most common reasons medical marijuana is prescribed.

“There’s definitely overlap in the conditions and symptoms for which marijuana as well as opioids and benzos are being used,” Dr. Fischer said.

Since 2008, the number of Canadians taking prescription sedatives – including benzodiazepines, but also sleep aids such as zopiclone – has remained steady at roughly 10 per cent, according to a bulletin issued last July by the the government-funded Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. While illicit opioid use has skyrocketed in recent years, the number of Canadians prescribed to this class of heavy painkillers has dropped from about 21 per cent in 2008 to 15 per cent in 2013, according to that same bulletin, which provides the latest data available.

Still, Dr. Fischer said newer data from the general population and a more rigorous analysis of the Veterans Affairs statistics is needed before any causality can be suggested.

A spokesperson for Veterans Affairs said in an e-mailed statement that this new “data does not allow the department to make any conclusions about the use of marijuana for medical purposes and the usage of other drugs.”

Veterans Affairs Minister Kent Hehr declined a request for an interview on the subject last week, but he previously stated that he has accepted all of the Auditor-General’s recommendations to create stricter controls on the program. Mr. Hehr has promised an update in the coming months to an ongoing internal review of medical-marijuana use among former soldiers.

Last fiscal year, 1,762 veterans used the only publicly funded plan in the country for medical marijuana. Groups that represent them offer a small, but lucrative, patient base for Canada’s two dozen licensed producers, which are fighting for their share of a competitive market while facing pressure from an illegal dispensary sector that has spread east from Vancouver.

Mike Southwell, co-founder of the controversial New Brunswick-based Marijuana For Trauma (MFT) organization, said veterans who use his eight clinics say they much prefer cannabis to the pharmaceuticals.

“Most of them have been coming off of over 80 per cent of their [opioid and benzodiazepine] medications,” said Mr. Southwell, a veteran who said he has dropped a handful of other drug prescriptions and now consumes about seven grams a day of cannabis to treat his post-traumatic stress disorder and back pain.

On average, last year’s marijuana prescriptions cost Veterans Affairs much more per patient ($11,656) than opioids ($316) or benzodiazepines ($73), according to government data.

Mr. Southwell said these costs are offset by former soldiers regaining their sex drive and ditching erectile dysfunction prescriptions – also covered by Ottawa – as well as a myriad of other benefits that come from using only medical cannabis.

“We’ve got testimonials rolling every day: ‘I got my husband back.’ ‘I got my life back.’ ‘I’m able to feel again.’ ‘I’m able to love again.’ I’m able to move again.’ ‘I’m able to sleep again,’ ” he said. “Those are amazing statements.”

James Grant, a 79-year-old veteran living in a suburb of Charlottetown, said he has been able to get at least six hours of uninterrupted sleep and play a full 18 holes of golf since he got a prescription for cannabis capsules through a Marijuana For Trauma clinic a month ago.

He said his life has become immeasurably better since using cannabis because he no longer is “gobbling extra-strength Tylenols” to help fill gaps in his pain medication.

But he doesn’t want to take the chance of regressing, so he said he will continue to take an opioid (a Butrans patch administering buprenorphine) for excruciating arthritis in his back and two benzodiazepine sleeping pills each night (Temazepam) so that he never wakes up to traumatic flashbacks.

“The capsules are the thing for me,” he said, adding that they have also helped his bowel movements become more regular. “I know what I have experienced before and I don’t want to go down that road.”
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #39 on: June 07, 2016, 10:56:25 »
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #40 on: June 07, 2016, 11:47:11 »

Read more: http://dailycaller.com/2016/06/06/medical-marijuana-study-shows-stunning-effect-on-treating-pain-nausea/#ixzz4AuPGsyq2

Medical Marijuana Study Shows Stunning Effect On Treating Pain, Nausea


Guy Bentley Reporter 1:04 PM 06/06/2016

Israel’s medical marijuana program is a stunning success when it comes to treating people for pain and nausea, according to a study presented at the International Jerusalem Conference on Health Policy.

The study, released May 26, is the first its kind examining cancer and non-cancer patients who’ve been given permission by Israel’s health ministry to use marijuana for treatment.

Lead researcher Prof. Pesach Shvartzman of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev’s Health Sciences Faculty said the vast majority of patients reported the drug helped relieve pain and nausea.

Israel has licensed more than 22,000 patients to use medical marijuana, but until now there has been no information about the users themselves.
 
Despite enjoying relief from pain and nausea, some patients suffered minor side effects. These included dry mouth, hunger, sleepiness and fatigue. Patients were observed for two years.

Almost all – 99.6 percent – of the patients applied to use medical marijuana after all other conventional medicines proved ineffective.

More than 40 percent of patients were given a recommendation by their doctor to use marijuana, with 75 percent choosing to smoke it, 21 percent using oils and the rest vaping. Less than one in 10 patients stopped using the drug after they were first surveyed.

The study was released the same day as new data in the U.S. showed the number of teens using and suffering from problems related to marijuana is falling at the same time more states are legalizing marijuana.

A study of more than 216,000 teens from across the country indicated a substantial decline in problems related to marijuana use.

Published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, the research shows teen marijuana use dropped 10 percent between 2002 and 2013, despite a string of states decriminalizing and legalizing weed. (RELATED: Study: Teen Marijuana Use And Crime Collapses As States Legalize)

The research team from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis examined data on drug use over a 12-year time horizon for teens ages 12-17. Teens suffering from marijuana dependency or having trouble at school and in relationships plummeted by 24 percent over this period.

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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #41 on: June 08, 2016, 11:15:12 »

https://news.liftcannabis.ca/2016/06/08/cannabis-anxiolytic-properties-help-treatment-posttraumatic-stress/

Cannabis Anxiolytic Properties Could Help in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress

Recent research has begun to uncover some links between PTSD and the endocannabinoid system



In 2009, New Mexico included posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the conditions eligible for cannabis prescription, being the first state to do so. Two years later, of the state’s nearly 5,500 medical cannabis patients, about two thousand (34%) were being treated for PTSD. In comparison, only 25% of the patients were being treated for chronic pain (source).

Outside of the legal framework, there are many PTSD patients using cannabis. A survey of a large representative sample of U.S. adults showed that those with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD were two to three times more likely to have used cannabis. These differences were unchanged after accounting for other drug abuse, and co-occurring anxiety and mood disorders. Another study concluded that PTSD was associated with cannabis use disorder in teenagers.

In face of this data, some researchers have suggested that PTSD patients might be trying to auto-medicate themselves with cannabis. Since the legalization of medical cannabis for this condition, several case reports emerged with positive remarks. One survey and an open clinical trial showing the positive effects of cannabinoids were published later on, but large controlled clinical trials are still missing. Only this year has the first trial of this kind been approved, with two million dollars granted to a non-profit association in the State of Colorado.

PTSD is a debilitating condition that may develop after an experience of trauma, usually within three months, though sometimes it develops years later. The symptoms required for a formal diagnosis include a frequent re-experiencing of aspects of the traumatic event (via flashbacks or nightmares), behaviors of emotional avoidance, exaggerated arousal and reactivity, and a negative mood and impaired cognitive functioning (such as not remembering aspects of the trauma). PTSD has a lifetime incidence of nearly 0.8 percent, and is more common in women than in men. This condition is also linked to a higher likelihood of depression and suicide.

Recent research has begun to uncover some links between PTSD and the endocannabinoid system. A neuroimaging study found an abnormally high availability of CB1 receptors in a neural circuit that has been implicated in PTSD. This seems to result from an upregulation of these receptors, and also from lower levels of endocannabinoids in the body. Moreover, the endocannabinoid system may also play a role in the etiology of depression and suicide (source).

Cannabinoids have been shown to produce anxiolytic effects when administered in low dosages. A preclinical study demonstrated that cannabidiol (CBD) significantly attenuates the freezing response of an animal placed in a cage where it had previously received foot shocks. It also had a significant effect in reducing heart rate and blood pressure symptoms. This suggests an ability of CBD to assuage or even eliminate the effects of contextual fear memories, which could be of great help in the treatment of PTSD.

A study with humans showed that CBD can reduce anxiety over a placebo. This effect was associated with a reduction in activity of the amygdala and hippocampus — which play a crucial role in the processing of fear and anxiety responses, as well as in the hypothalamus, which is responsible for a myriad of autonomic responses, including stress, and also in more frontal regions of the brain that are thought to play a role in emotional regulation.

Moreover, cannabis might curtail behaviors that tend to be exacerbated in PTSD. According to a survey conducted by a medical cannabis dispensary in the state of California, 65% of the users reported using cannabis as a substitute for alcohol. This might be especially important for PTSD, which is known to be strongly linked to alcohol abuse.

Another indirect therapeutic effect of cannabis in PTSD might be that of regulating aggressive behavior. It would be interesting to see studies directly investigating these links between PTSD, cannabis, and harmful behaviors.



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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #43 on: June 09, 2016, 21:20:12 »
Veterans Know your rights.  You are allowed to smoke in any designated smoking area, if you have a Prescription for Medical Cannabis

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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #44 on: June 10, 2016, 03:22:05 »
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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #45 on: June 10, 2016, 18:42:54 »
The MagicalButter machine is scientifically designed for a specific purpose: creating incredible recipes and botanical infusions with little or no labor. The MagicalButter machine combines an immersion blender with a digital thermostat and heating unit. The MB grinds, heats, stirs, and steeps your herbal extract, all at the correct time intervals and temperature. So, you achieve your desired infusion easily, safely, and consistently.

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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #48 on: June 16, 2016, 17:19:34 »
CannaConnect opens Education Center in Winnipeg


Our ‪#‎Winnipeg‬ Education Center is officially Open and ready to help connect ‪#‎Canadians‬ with ‪#‎medicalcannabis‬ through Health Canada's ‪#‎MMPR‬ program.

If quality of life is important to you, please feel free to stop in or give us a call and we will gladly answer any questions you have about how we can help you become a registered ‪#‎medicalmarijuana‬ patient.

‪#‎cannaconnect‬ ‪#‎cannabis‬ ‪#‎marijuana‬ ‪#‎cbd‬ ‪#‎thc‬ ‪#‎Manitoba‬







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Re: Medical Cannabis for Canadian Veterans
« Reply #49 on: June 17, 2016, 18:49:13 »
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